To comment on an article published by The Independent, you will need to either register for an account to participate in the open comments area or subscribe to Independent Premium to comment in the Independent Premium area.
We endeavour to keep the use of commenting and debate on The Independent as fair and balanced as possible. Comments are managed via post moderation, the flagging of inappropriate posts by our commenting community and our users abiding by community rules.
Please bear in mind our community guidelines when participating in our comment sections. You can find out more information here.